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河谷大型古老滑坡复活与针对性防治技术研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Large Ancient Landslide Revival and Control Technology inValley
Language中文
王浩
Thesis Advisor王全才
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword河谷 古老滑坡 组合结构 计算模型 防治技术
Abstract河谷两岸由于受到水流的复杂作用,发育了大量古老滑坡,一旦水的作用消失这些古老滑坡在相当长的一段时间内处于相对稳定状态,其地貌上滑坡特征有可能已经模糊,但是在洪水的作用下,这些滑坡就可能重新复活。由于以往危害对象的缺失,洪水诱发古老滑坡复活不像地震诱发滑坡、暴雨诱发滑坡、坡脚开挖诱发滑坡那样容易受到关注,其复活与针对性防治技术研究较少,但是随着经济的的发展,河谷地区人类活动的加剧,这类滑坡复活就会形成重大灾害。 本论文围绕洪水作用下河谷大型古老滑坡复活与针对性防治技术等科学问题,以岷江中上游及其支流天全河作为研究区域,在查阅国内外相关研究资料的基础上,通过统计分析、理论推导、数值计算等方法,研究了古老滑坡滑带土抗剪强度参数选取方法、洪水概化模型参数选取方法、洪水作用下的滑坡稳定性,并探讨了古老滑坡前缘防冲刷技术、深层抗滑技术、深层排水技术。取得了如下主要研究成果: (1)论文分析了研究区内地震后滑坡崩塌物源对河流沟谷的影响,明确了河谷古滑坡、老滑坡、新滑坡的区分,根据古老滑坡滑动面形态与运动方式提出了更切合实际的滑带土抗剪强度综合分析法,对比分析了一般反算法与综合分析法的结果在计算滑坡剩余推力的差异,发现采用综合分析法避免了一般反算法求得的滑坡后部和滑坡中部剩余推力往往偏大,滑坡前缘推力偏小的情况,认为综合分析法计算比一般反算法更符合实际情况。 (2)洪水对滑坡的作用主要表现在洪水过程线要素的变化上,基于前人对单洪峰流量过程线概化模型研究的基础上,本文提出了基于粒子群算法洪水流量作用过程线概化模型参数获取方法,并推导了三角形断面与梯形断面水位过程线、坡脚冲刷量计算公式,对单洪峰作用下给定断面边坡冲刷量进行研究,结果表明相同条件下矩形河道断面坡脚的冲刷量低于三角形河道,河道比降参数对冲刷量的影响大于土体的抗剪强度; (3)利用极限分析方法,在摩尔库伦破坏准则的基础上,建立洪水作用下直线型滑面古老滑坡复活模型,对比分析极限平衡与极限分析方法建立的滑坡复活模型在滑坡稳定性计算的差异。同时基于极限分析理论建立了曲线形滑面古老滑坡复活模型,分析了洪水作用过程中水位、冲刷量、边坡坡度等参数对稳定性系数的影响。结果表明洪水作用过程中,河水位与地下水位同时上升时,滑坡稳定性系数增加,曲线形滑面滑坡在地下水与土体内摩擦角折减双重作用下,滑坡在内摩擦角15°-25°范围内有一个复活破坏过程,当河水位上升到一定的高度保持不变时,随着地下水位上升滑坡稳定性系数降低; (4)本文探讨了河谷凸岸、凹岸、直岸滑坡前缘防冲刷技术,针对滑坡凹岸防护提出了新型组合结构——台坎式挡墙组合结构,应用于二郎山1#滑坡前缘修复工程中,并利用数值计算研究了在涨水与退水不利荷载作用下该组合结构的应力、应变特征,论证了台坎式挡墙组合结构的优越性; (5)针对河谷大型古老滑坡滑面极厚、滑坡推力大、地下施工环境条件恶劣的情况,设计了一种新型组合抗滑桩——桩底桩组合结构,以小宗渠滑坡的桩底桩组合结构为模型,研究了不同荷载作用下组合结构的应力变形特征。针对该结构在不利荷载作用下表现出的整体柔性及锚索锚头、钢管桩与抗滑桩连接部位的应力集中特征,提出了结构设计的改进方法——加强锚索与钢管桩强度设计。
Other AbstractBoth sides of the river were scoured by water flow, where a lot of ancient landslides were distribution. These ancient landslides were in a relatively stable state in quite a long time, when the role of water was disappear, and landscape of landslide characteristics may have been blurred. However, these landslides will relive because of food. The ancient landslides that were evoked by flood were unlike earthquake-induced landslide, rainfall induced landslide, slope toe excavation induced landslides as easy to concern due to lack of risk object in the past, resurrection and study of control technique is less. With the development of economic, human activities aggravated, these ancient landslides will form major disasters. In this paper, we were around the large ancient landslide resurrection under the effect of the flood in the valley and control technology problem, used the upper reaches of Minjiang River and its tributaries Tianquan River as the study area, based on summarizing the domestic and foreign relevant research data, through statistical analysis, theoretical derivation, numerical calculation method, studied on the shear strength parameter of the landslide slip soil selection method, the parameter of the flood probability model selection method, the stability of ancient landslide effect by flood, and discuss the ancient landslide erosion protection technology, deep resistance slide technology, deep drainage technology. The main results are as follows: (1) The paper did an analysis of landslide deposits after the earthquake influence on river valleys in the study area, distinguished clearly the valley of ancient landslide, new landslide and old landslide distinction. Also, this paper put forward to comprehensive analysis method of shear strength of sliding soil according to ancient landslide slip surface shape and motion. The residual landslide thrust which was calculated by general inverse algorithm and synthesis analytic method were differed, concluded that synthesis analytic method was more accurate than general inverse algorithm because that thrust of back and middle in landslides calculated by synthesis analytic method was small than thrust calculated by general inverse algorithm. (2) The affection on landslide by flood was the changes of flood hydrography.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7044
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王浩. 河谷大型古老滑坡复活与针对性防治技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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