IMHE OpenIR  > 山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
三峡库区小流域侵蚀产沙对土地利用变化的响应
Alternative TitleResponse of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield to Land Use Change in Small Catchment in the Three
Language中文
巨莉
Thesis Advisor文安邦
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword三峡库区 小流域 土地利用变化 137cs 210pb 侵蚀产沙
Abstract论文以三峡库区腹心地带忠县石宝镇的斑竹林(4.95 hm2)和后头塘(3.45 hm2)两个小流域为研究对象,以GIS和137Cs、210Pb示踪技术为主要手段,结合实地调查,分析了小流域土地利用变化情况;定量分析小流域土地利用变化前后的侵蚀/堆积强度、塘库淤积特征;阐明不同时期小流域泥沙平衡,揭示了小流域侵蚀产沙对土地利用变化的响应。主要研究结论如下:(1)2003年至2008年,两个小流域土地利用变化显著,以旱地和水田的变化为主。从土地利用面积变化来看,斑竹林小流域旱地面积减少0.98 hm2,水田面积减少0.61 hm2,其它林地面积增加1.47 hm2,农村宅基地面积增加0.12 hm2;后头塘小流域旱地面积减少1.23 hm2,水田面积减少0.14 hm2,果园面积增加1.35 hm2。从土地利用类型变化来看,斑竹林小流域74.3%和6.1%的旱地分别转化成其它林地和农村宅基地,42.7%的水田转化为旱地;后头塘小流域87.1%的旱地转化为果园,8.8%水田转化为旱地。(2)塘库沉积泥沙的137Cs断代和210Pb定年结果具有较好的对应性。斑竹林小流域1963年以来的产沙强度基本稳定,其塘库1963年以来的泥沙淤积深度为73.34 g cm-2,泥沙平均沉积速率为1.50 g cm-2 a-1,淤沙总量为1552.5 t。后头塘塘库在过去50多年泥沙沉积速率是不稳定的,泥沙沉积速率介于0.86~2.62 g cm-2 a-1。泥沙沉积速率变化的主导因素阶段性特征明显,与流域降水量、农业发展和土地利用变化等变化阶段具有较好的一致性,表明塘库沉积记录能够较好的反映流域降水及人类活动变化。(3)运用137Cs示踪技术和径流小区观测,结合流域土地利用现状,查明斑竹林小流域旱地平均侵蚀模数为3590 t km-2 a-1,水田平均堆积模数为2535 t km-2 a-1。后头塘小流域柑橘园2008、2009年的土壤侵蚀模数分别是305 t km-2 a-1和260 t km-2 a-1,水田平均堆积模数为2578.9 t km-2 a-1。(4)斑竹林小流域土地利用变化后小流域侵蚀产沙变化不大,一方面是由于水田转化为旱地后,坡面坡度基本保持水平,水田转化的旱地亦是淤积区;另一方面是由于旱地退耕时间不长,监管不力,当地农民仍在退耕地里耕作。后头塘小流域自2004年将旱地改成果园后,小流域侵蚀产沙发生显著变化。旱地改果园前的1963~2003年间小流域累积土壤侵蚀量为2881 t,年均侵蚀量为55.6 t a-1,其中有72.5%、24.7%分别淤积在水田和塘库中。旱地改果园后的2009~2011年间小流域土壤侵蚀总量为32.1 t,年均侵蚀量为10.7 t a-1,水田泥沙淤积总量为8.3 t,占侵蚀总量的25.9%,塘库泥沙淤积总量为21.4 t,占侵蚀总量的66.7%。旱地转化为果园后,转化区的坡面侵蚀减蚀效应为92.8%,减沙效应为48.1%,平均每转化1 hm2旱地,坡面年均土壤侵蚀量减少33.4 t,流域年产沙量减少5.5 t。研究结果还表明,三峡库区典型农业小流域中水田和修建小塘库可以有效拦截流域坡面侵蚀泥沙,减少汇入主河的泥沙量。
Other AbstractSmall watershed is the primary source of river sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR). The evaluation and quantification of land use change on sediment yield in the watershed in the TGRR have attracted increased attention by many researchers. To date, the study on the influences of erosion and sedimentation resulted from land use change conducted poorly, and most of them were qualitative and need further research. The widely distributed ponds in the TGR provide a useful basis for the quantification of soil erosion rate and sediment yield in this area. This paper selected the Banzhulin watershed (4.95 hm2) and the Houtoutang watershed (3.45 hm2), in the Shibao town of Zhongxian county in the TGRR area, as the research objects. Based on GIS technology and 137Cs and 210Pbex tracing methods, combined with filed investigation, this paper analyzed the land use change of the watershed, explored systematically the different land use types associated with the process of erosion and sediment yield in the watershed for pond sedimentation, and discovered exactly the erosion and sedimentation rates and pond accumulation during the land use changes in the watershed.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7046
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
巨莉. 三峡库区小流域侵蚀产沙对土地利用变化的响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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