IMHE OpenIR  > 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
基于遥感与GIS的精细化区域泥石流风险评估
Alternative TitleRefined Regional Debris Flow Risk Assessment Based on Remote Sensing and GIS
Language中文
熊俊楠
Thesis Advisor韦方强
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword泥石流 风险评价 格网 小流域 遥感 Gis
Abstract泥石流是山区特有的一种突发性的自然现象,随着社会经济的不断发展,山区人类活动加剧,使泥石流活动日益增加,造成的人员伤亡和经济损失也呈增长趋势,泥石流防灾减灾成为山区社会经济发展过程中亟待解决的重要问题之一。泥石流灾害风险评估是科学的防灾减灾措施之一,包括危险性评估和易损性评估,受空间数据获取和评估方法等因素的限制,目前危险性以格网单元、易损性以行政区单元评价方法为主,难以达到精细化的要求。本文针对这一问题,从泥石流灾害风险分析的理论入手,通过分析研究区泥石流分布规律,建立了基于能量条件的潜势泥石流流域(指满足泥石流发生所需能量条件的泥石流流域,包括已发生过泥石流的流域和潜在泥石流流域)判识模型,判识出具备泥石流发生所需能量条件的小流域,以潜势泥石流流域为评价单元建立了危险性评价指标体系和评价模型,实现了以潜势泥石流流域为单元的危险性评价;分析了研究区泥石流承灾体类型,改变以行政区为单元的社会经济指标评价方法,建立了谱间特征与多种指数相结合的TM影像建筑用地提取方法,基于土地利用类型的社会经济指标空间化方法,从而实现了以格网为单元的易损性评价;通过危险性与易损性评价单元空间尺度的匹配,实现了研究区以流域为单元的风险评价,并对评价结果进行了分析。本研究主要取得了以下结论和研究成果: 1.建立了基于能量条件的潜势泥石流流域判识模型。通过收集研究区泥石流沟资料,在分析研究区泥石流分布规律的基础上,以流域面积、相对高度代表泥石流发育的能量条件,建立了潜势泥石流流域判识模型;以GDEM为数据源,在GIS技术支持下,以不同集水面积阈值进行研究区小流域划分与提取;用建立的潜势泥石流流域判识模型对集水面积阈值0.9 km2提取的小流域进行判识,得到具备泥石流发生所需能量条件的小流域,为以泥石流流域为评价单元的泥石流危险性精细化评估提供基础。 2.以可拓学物元理论为基础,泥石流流域为单元,对研究区进行了泥石流危险性评价和分区。建立了基于泥石流流域单元的危险性评价指标体系,改进了区域泥石流危险性评价标准物元模型,以泥石流流域为单元进行研究区泥石流危险性评价,其中极高危险区面积34176.51km2,占7.05%,高度危险区面积76560.21 km2,占15.80%,中度危险区面积91179.441km2,占18.81%,低度危险区面积79483.68 km2,占16.41%,极低危险区面积203225.2 km2,占41.93%;在此基础上得到研究区各市、县级行政区内不同等级危险度泥石流流域数及面积。 3. 建立了谱间特征与多种指数相结合的TM影像建筑用地提取模型。建筑用地是泥石流重要的承灾体之一,为提高其与裸地、河滩地的区分度,减少误提和漏提,通过分析建筑用地与背景地物在TM/ETM+影像上的光谱特征,建立了一种将归一化建筑指数(NDBI)、改进归一化差异水体指数(MNDWI)、土壤调节植被指数(SAVI)、比值居民地指数(RRI)相结合的建筑用地信息提取模型。 4. 建立了研究区人口、GDP统计数据的空间格网化方法。在建筑用地信息遥感提取的基础上,结合已有土地利用分类结果,按照“分县控制,分城乡建模,基于土地利用”的原则,分别建立农村、城镇人口空间化模型;按照“分县控制,分产业建模,基于土地利用”的原则,分别建立第一产业、第二产业、第三产业GDP空间化模型,将以县(市)级行政区为单元的人口、GDP统计数据,转化为以公里格网为单元的空间化数据。 5. 实现了以格网为单元的研究区泥石流易损性评价。通过分析研究区泥石流成灾方式,建立了易损性评价指标体系;在建筑用地信息遥感提取的基础上,进行建筑用地及其余易损性评价指标的格网化,建立以格网为单元的易损性评价模型,对研究区泥石流易损性进行评价,并划分了易损性等级。 6.实现了以潜势泥石流流域为单元的研究区泥石流风险评价。通过分析泥石流风险评价理论,建立格网单元易损度向流域单元易损度的转换方法,实现了危险性评价与易损性评价单元空间尺度的匹配,进而实现了研究区以潜势泥石流流域为单元的风险评价,在此基础上进行了泥石流流域风险等级划分及分析,得到研究区各市、县级行政区内不同等级分险度泥石流流域数及面积。其结果对各级政府决策、区域规划、实施防治措施等具有重要意义。 本研究的创新性主要体现在: 1.通过对研究区已查明泥石流分布规律的分析,建立了基于能量条件的潜势泥石流流域判识方法,实现了以潜势泥石流流域为单元的区域泥石流危险性评价,突破了以网格为单元的传统泥石流危险性评价方法,保证了泥石流发生单元地质环境信息的完整性。 2.通过对研究区建筑用地信息遥感提取,结合已有土地利用分类结果,建立了基于土地利用类型分布特征的社会经济指标空间化方法,实现了易损性评价的网格化,突破了以行政区为单元的传统易损性评价方法,有效地揭示了行政区域内部泥石流易损性的空间分布差异,使得区域泥石流易损性研究的尺度在空间上进一步细化。
Other AbstractDebris flow is a paroxysmal and peculiar natural phenomenon in mountains area, with the development of social economy and intensify of human activity, the debris flow activities increasing, and cause casualties and economic loss also showed a trend of growth, debris flow disaster prevention and reduction become one of the important problems need to be solved in the process of social and economic development in mountains area. Debris flow risk assessment is one of science measures for disaster prevention and mitigation, which including hazard assessment and vulnerability assessment, influenced by factors such as spatial data acquisition and evaluation method, grid-unit method and district-unit were mainly used in hazard assessment and vulnerability assessment, can’t meet the requirements of refined risk assessment. In order to solve the problem, this article based on the theory of debris flow disaster risk analysis, by analyzing the distribution regularity of debris flow in the study area, build a model of identification potential debris flow basin(refers to the basin which has the required energy condition of debris flow occurred, include the potential and happened debris flow valley) based on geomorphology characteristics, and identified the small valley which has the energy condition debris flow gully must need use this model, established the hazard evaluation index system and evaluation model take potential debris flow valley as evaluation unit, realized hazard assessment based on the potential debris flow valley unit. Analyzed the type of debris flow hazard-affected bodies in the study area, and changed the social and economic indicators assessment method of take district as unit, established the social and economic index spatialization method based on land use, residential areas information extraction method based on the analysis of spectral signature and a variety of index, use grid unit realized the vulnerability assessment. Through space scale matching, realized debris flow risk assessment based on catchment-unit, and analyzed the evaluation results. Some conclusions and achievements are as follows: 1. Established identification model of potential debris flow valley based on geomorphology characteristics. By collecting debris flow gully data in the study area, and analysis the distribution regularity of debris flow, established the identification model of potential debris flow valley use basin area, relative height on behalf of the energy conditions of debris flow. Taking GDEM as data source and use ARCGIS 9.3 software divided the small watershed with different catchment area threshold; We use the identification model of potential debris flow valley identified the small watershed which catchment area threshold is 0.9 km2,and get the small watershed which has the energy condition of debris flow occurred, it can provides evaluation unit for debris flow hazard refined assessment based on debris flow valley. 2. On the basis of matter-element theory of extenics, take debris flow basin as unit, carried out debris flow risk assessment and zoning in the studied area. Established the index system of hazard assessment based on debris flow basin units, improved the standard matter-element model of regional debris flow hazard assessment, and carried out debris flow hazard assessment in the study area take debris flow basin as unit, the area of highest danger zone is 34176.51km2,accounted for 7.05%,the area of high danger zone is 76560.21 km2,accounted for 15.80%,the area of middle danger zone is 91179.441 km2,accounted for 18.81%, the area of low danger zone is 79483.68 km2, accounted for 16.41%, the area of very low danger zone is 203225.2 km2,accounted for 41.93%. And get the area and debris flow basin number of different hazard level in each city and county in study area.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7062
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
熊俊楠. 基于遥感与GIS的精细化区域泥石流风险评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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