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三峡库区水土流失与面源污染智能监测系统的研究
Alternative TitleIntelligent monitoring system for soil erosion and non-point source pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
Language中文
郭丰
Thesis Advisor贺秀斌
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword智能监测 三峡库区 水土流失 面源污染 小流域
Abstract三峡库区水土流失与面源污染面广、量大、影响因素多、输移过程复杂,严重威胁库区生态安全和水库运行安全。然而目前对三峡库区的相关研究积累较少,缺乏长期观测与监测系统平台,导致数据缺乏及数据质量无法保障,影响了对水土流失与面源污染现状的精准评估及其发展趋势的准确预测。本研究以三峡库区典型小流域(申家河)为例,集成水土流失与面源污染光电探测技术、多模式模拟数据统一采集技术、无线传感器网络与GPRS无线通信技术、基于J2EE平台构建B/S结构的分布式网络信息系统,进行了三峡库区小流域水土流失与面源污染智能监测系统平台构建方法的研究。其主要研究结论如下: (1)以高分辨率航空遥感影像及数字化的地形、土壤、土地利用、植被覆盖图等多源空间数据为基础,建立了小流域水土流失和面源污染背景信息数据库。并在此基础上进行了监测点位与断面的规划设计,为库区小流域水土流失与面源污染智能监测系统平台的构建提供基础空间数据和环境背景属性数据。 (2)多参数探测技术集成与多元数据采集技术应用。集成光电探测仪器和太阳能供电设备及自动控制触发器等辅助设备,利用基于单片机的多元数据采集技术对光电探测仪器及其辅助设备的数据与信号进行采集。实现小流域气象、径流泥沙、土壤特性和水文水质等水土流失与面源污染相关特征参数的自动测量和多模式数据的同步采集。 (3)高效无线数据传输技术应用。采用Zigbee无线传感器网络技术,将各监测点的多通道数据通过无线通信芯片汇聚至中控设备进行处理与存储;采用GPRS无线数据传输技术,将中控设备的数据信息上传至监测中心服务器数据库存储,同时也可将监测中心的控制命令发送至布设于监测点的相关设备以实现监测系统的远程控制,从而实现监测点物理世界和监测中心虚拟世界的无缝互连。ZigBee无线传感器网络和GPRS远程无线传输网络的结合为复杂、大范围监测点的海量数据高效传输提供了重要保障。 (4)智能监测信息系统设计。基于J2EE平台构建B/S结构的分布式网络信息系统,为三峡库区水土流失与面源污染的模型评价提供数据基础和平台支持。系统包括数字流域、探测感知和评估预警三个模块。数字流域模块实现对小流域属性数据和空间数据的管理与展示;探测感知模块负责对不同来源的水土流失与面源污染相关监测数据进行采集、存储和传输;评估预警模块负责对实测数据进行统计分析和空间分析,通过评价模型调用或相关分析评估计算方法得出水土流失与面源污染的时空规律及其发展趋势。 本研究初步实现了三峡库区申家河小流域水土流失与面源污染特征参数的自动探测、远程数据传输、模型评价分析的自动化监测与评估,为三峡库区水土流失与面源污染过程机理研究、现状诊断、实时监测和预测预警提供了基础平台,为推进水土流失与面源污染监测的自动化、信息化、网络化与智能化提供了一种高效、快捷的智能化方法与技术。
Other AbstractSoil erosion and non-point source pollution are widely distributed and severe in
the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. As an interactive process of earth surface materials
movement, it has negative impact on the ecological environment and water quality in
the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The effective solution is to figure out the
occurrence mechanism and transport processes of sedimentation and pollutants.
However, due to the lack of related research as well as short of continuous monitoring
data and applicable system platform, it is difficult to make accurate assessment and
prediction on soil erosion and non-point source pollution in the Three Gorges
Reservoir Area. This paper presented an intelligent monitoring system for soil erosion
and non-point source pollution, which has been specially designed and established at
the typical Shenjia River small watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The
intelligent monitoring system has been designed and deployed on the basis of a
number of advanced technologies, such as optical sensing, synchronous data
acquisition, wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS wireless transmitting as well as
J2EE and B/S-based distributed information network technology. The main
conclusions of the study are as follows.
1. The background information database related to soil erosion and non-point
source pollution of the Shenjia River small watershed is established on the basis of
remote sensing image of high resolution and multi-source spatial data, such as
digitalized-topographic map, soil information, land use, vegetation, and so on. The
useful database provides spatial data and environmental background information in
support for building of the intelligent monitoring platform for soil erosion and
non-point source pollution. The monitoring section is also designed on the basis of the useful background information of the small watershed.
2. This paper has carried out researches on the application of the multi-parameter
measurement and multivariate data acquisition technology. The intelligent monitoring
system has integrated optical sensing instruments and auxiliary equipment, such as
intelligent solar power source and automatic control unit, and the corresponding
multimode data signals acquisition can be operated by the single chip
microcomputer-based data acquisition module with multi-channel. The intelligent
monitoring system, therefore, can automatically measure the soil erosion and
non-point source pollution related characteristics at small watershed level, including
meteorological factors, runoff rate, sediment concentration, soil properties, water flux
and quality. Besides, the function of synchronous acquisition for multivariate data can
be also achieved.
3. The application of high efficient wireless data transmission technology is
studied. With the ZigBee-based wireless sensor technology (WSN), the multivariate
data derived from each monitoring site can be converged into the central unit by
wireless communicating chip. The collected monitoring data information can be
uploaded into the database of monitoring center by GPRS wireless communication.
Besides, the control commands issued from the monitoring center can be also
transmitted to the central unit so as to realize remote control. Consequently, the
seamless connection between the monitoring sites and the monitoring center is
realized. The integration of ZigBee-based wireless sensor network and GPRS-based
remote wireless communication network enables the monitoring system to get
satisfied data transmission quality in the complicated field environment without
infrastructures.
4. As the kernel of the monitoring center, the study on the intelligent monitoring
and information management system platform is carried out based on J2EE
technology. The platform is designed and developed as a distributed network
information system on the basis of B/S structure and it can provide basic data
information and technical support to the model evaluation for soil erosion and
non-point source pollution of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The function structure of the platform is designed to be composed of three modules which are implemented
to feature three corresponding functional applications, including the digital-watershed
application, sensing application as well as evaluating and early warning application
respectively. The digital-watershed application is mainly used to realize the function
of management and demonstration of the basic information and graphical information
of the watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The sensing application is
responsible for the data acquisition and storage of the multi-source monitoring data
information related to soil erosion and non-point source pollution. The evaluating and
early warning application features the statistical analysis and spatial analysis of the
monitoring data. The related model analysis and evaluation can be realized so as to
achieve the goal of figuring out the spatial-temporal laws and development trend of
soil erosion and non-point source pollution.
The present study has preliminary realized the function of automatic measuring,
remote data transmission as well as model analysis and evaluation for the soil erosion
and non-point source pollution related characteristics at the Shenjia River small
watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The presented intelligent monitoring
system can be applied as the basic platform to realize a number of researches on soil
erosion and non-point source pollution, such as study on mechanism, status analysis,
real-time monitoring, prediction and early warning, and so on. The related research
provides a high-efficient method and technology to make an automated,
informationalized, networked and intelligentized monitoring work for soil erosion and
non-point source pollution.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7064
Collection山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郭丰. 三峡库区水土流失与面源污染智能监测系统的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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