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典型山区农户生计空间差异与生计选择研究——以四川省凉山彝族自治州为例
Alternative TitleThe Spatial Difference of Famer’s Livelihood Situation and Livelihood Choice in Representative Mountain Areas: A Case Study of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province
Language中文
何仁伟
Thesis Advisor刘邵权 ; 樊杰
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline人文地理学
Keyword山区农户 生计资本 生计策略 生计选择 凉山州
Abstract中国山区多为少数民族和贫困人口集中的地区,相于平原地区而言,山区贫困问题相当突出。山区农户是山区贫困的载体,因此,微观层面的农户可持续生计是解决山区贫困问题的最终落脚点。本文以西南典型山区——四川省凉山彝族自治州(凉山州)为研究对象,首先,对凉山州农户生计的总体状况及其空间差异进行了深入分析;然后以安宁河流域的高半山区、二半山区、山坡区和河坝区的8个典型村为例,对农户的生计资本、生计策略及其两者之间的量化关系展开深入研究,最后归纳出凉山州农户的生计选择模式。主要研究结论如下: (1)农户生计状况及其空间差异。采用熵值赋权法,计算出凉山州各县(市)农户生计资本指数,再运用快速聚类分析法,将其分为较高、中等、较低(缺乏)三个评价等级,并将各县(市)农户生计资本的存量划分为不同的类型。用不同区域农户类型的比例代表其农户的生计策略,分析表明:凉山州农户生计策略空间差异明显,非农经济发育程度还较低,促进农户生计策略调整的空间还比较大。采用和生计资本同样的评估方法,将凉山州生计结果状况分成三级。Pearson相关性分析发现,农户生计资本总量、兼业农户比例、生计结果三者之间有极强的相关性。 (2)农户生计状况(生计资本)的空间差异分析表明:农户生计资本与凉山州地理资源条件空间位置有较强的藕合性;县域生计资本空间差异十分显著,农户生计资本空间聚集特征明显;农户生计资本与少数民族(或彝族)空间分布之间呈高度负相关,凉山州少数民族(或彝族)集中分布区与生计资本的低值区基本相重合;农户生计资本存量与交通优势度之间呈强的正相关,与地形起伏度呈中度负相关;农户生计资本总量与农民人均纯收入之间呈极强的正相关。 (3)典型区域(样本区域)农户生计资本分析。受自然环境、资源禀赋、生产方式、民族组成、社会经济发展基础等的影响,凉山州农户生计资本存在明显的区域差异。农户的生计资本指数呈现出高半山区<二半山区<山坡区<河坝区,随着海拔的升高生计资本有递减的趋势。 (4)典型区域农户生计策略分析。①对不同区域农户生计活动的研究发现,由高半山区至河坝区,农业经营活动的具有明显的空间差异,并且随着海拔的降低,农户的农业经营活动更加丰富多样;农户从事的非农经营活动,往往围绕本地的资源优势或农户需求而展开;由高半山区至河坝区,随着海拔的降低,农户从事非农生计活动的门槛有增高的趋势。②不同生计类型的农户基本特点分析表明,非农型和非农为主型的家庭总人口高于纯农型或农为主型,山坡区和河坝区纯农型家庭人口规模远小于二半山和高半山区;在劳动分工上,非农型与非农为主型投入非农活动的人数较多,非农活动中又以打工的劳动力数量最大;在劳动力的教育水平上,总体而言,非农型>非农为主型>农为主型 >纯农型,河坝区>山坡区>二半山区>高半山区,男性>女性。③不同类型农户,采取的生计活动存在差异,主要体现在农业活动安排、非农活动引入及其组合等方面。高半山区、二半山区、山坡区非农为主型农户可持续发展能力强,是农户生计类型调整的主要方向;河坝区不同农户类型的生计风险低都比较低,收入也比较高,支持该区农户生计类型多样化发展。④不同类型和不同区域农户消费支出差异非常明显,民族文化习俗对农户消费支出有一定的影响,农户的总消费支出能力和农户的收入有直接的关系。⑤彩礼等巨额的支出和不合理的生育行为是山区农户可持续生计和脱贫的重要制约因素。农户的彩礼支出和生育意愿与海拔高度呈正相关,即高半山区>二半山区>山坡区>河坝区。⑥农户的生活满意度总体程度不高,农户生计策略调整的途径均围绕着农户本身或本地的相对优势资源而展开,高半山区和二半山区农户由于受到自身发展能力的限制,选择不调整生计策略的农户比例更高。 (5)生计资本与生计策略的量化关系分析。展开农户生计资本与生计策略之间的定量关系分析,可以找出农户生计策略的转化的关键影响因素。logistic模型分析表明,随着自然资本的增大,农户成为纯农型的概率越大;随着人力资本的增大,农户成为非农为主型和非农型的概率越大;随着金融资本的增大,农户成为农为主型和非农为主型的概率越大。农户生计策略的关键影响因素具有非常明显的空间差异。 (6)典型山区农户生计选择的理论与实证分析。通过构建农户生计选择的理论,结合研究的宏观背景、政策扶持等方面,提出农户生计选择的思路;在对各典型区域生计发展要素及区域特征分析的基础上,认为凉山州高半山区、二半山区、山坡区和河坝区农户采取的生计策略分别为政策扶持战略、政策扶持战略、特色农业与劳务输出战略、特色农业与乡村旅游战略,其生计选择的模式分别为移民/农牧为主、打工经商为辅,农业与打工并举、经商为辅,特色农业与劳务输出,多样化生计模式。
Other AbstractThe poor areas and the minorities are mostly concentrated in Chinese mountainous areas.Compared to the plain areas, the poverty of mountainous areas is quite prominent. The mountainous farmers are the carriers of mountainous poverty, therefore, the sustainable livelihoods of farmers in micro level are the final foothold of solving this kind of poverty. This paper takes the typical mountainous areas in southwest - Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province as the research object. First of all, it thoroughly analyzes the overall situation of farmers' livelihood and its spatial differences in Liangshan prefecture; Then, taking eight typical villages as examples , including the mountainous districts in the high mid- and mid-levels and the areas of mountainside(the foot of the mountain) and river valley in the River Basin of Anning, it gives a deep analysis of farmers' livelihood capitals and strategies, and the quantitative relations between them, which finally concludes the selective modes of the livelihood of farmers in Liangshan Prefecture. The conclusions of the main research are described as follows: (1) The situation of farmers' livelihood and its spatial differences. This paper uses the entropy value method to calculate the indexes of farmers' livelihood capital of every county (city) in Liangshan Prefecture and then puts these counties into the upper, medium and lower levels by applying clustering analytic approach and divides the stock of the capital into different types in all counties (cities).With the types of proportion of farmers' household in different regions on behalf of the strategies of farmers livelihoods, the analysis shows that the spatial differences of livelihood strategies in Liangshan Prefecture is obvious, and the development of non-agricultural economic is low and the adjusting space of promoting the strategies is relatively large. Applying the same evaluating methods of livelihood capital, the paper divides the results of livelihood into three degrees there. Pearson's relevant analysis has shown that it is strongly related of three elements, the gross of farmers' livelihood capital, the professional peasants and the result of livelihood. (2) The distribution of farmers’ livelihood capital is in strong coupling with the spatial position of geographical resources in Liangshan Prefecture. At the same time, the spatial differences of livelihood capital in all counties are obvious, so are the gathered characteristics of farmers’ livelihood capital. There is a negative correlation between the stock of farmers’ livelihood capital and the spatial distribution of minority population, which means that the low livelihood capital areas are essentially coincident with the concentration areas of minority nationality (Yi nationality)in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture.There is a significant positive correlation between farmers’ livelihood capital stock and transportation predominance, but a negative correlation with the relief of topography. And the amount of farmers’ livelihood capital has a highly significant positive correlation with the per-capita net income of farmers. (3)The analysis of farmers' livelihood capital in typical regions (sample regions). Affected by natural environment, resource endowment, production modes, composition of nationalities, development of society and economy etc., the livelihood capital in Liangshan Prefecture exists obviously regional differences. Its capital indexes have presented that the indexes in high mid- levels are less than those in mid-levels, which are successively less than those in mountainside and river valley. With the increase of altitude, the livelihood capital has a decreasing trend. (4)The analysis of farmers' livelihoods strategies in typical regions.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7065
Collection山区发展研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
何仁伟. 典型山区农户生计空间差异与生计选择研究——以四川省凉山彝族自治州为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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