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汶川地震区狭陡型泥石流工程治理关键技术研究——以绵竹市小岗剑泥石流治理工程为例
Alternative TitleKey Technologies of Treatment for Debris Flow in Narrow-steep Gullies in Wenchuan Earthquake Areas: A Case Study for Xiaogangjian Debris flow in Mianzhu County
Language中文
杨东旭
Thesis Advisor陈晓清
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Keyword狭陡型泥石流 小岗剑 微型钢管桩 箱体衬砌排导槽 消能防磨 加糙带
Abstract狭陡型沟道泥石流是汶川地震区震后5a内活动较多的一类泥石流,其发育环境、形成特征、活动特征及危害特征与震前泥石流相比具有一定的特殊性,因其数量多、分布广、爆发频繁、危害严重,非常有必要对其进行重点研究并开发针对性的防治技术。本文通过广泛收集资料和深入分析,结合实地调查,给出了狭陡型泥石流的定义,研究了其形成、活动和危害特征及工程治理难点,并以绵竹市小岗剑泥石流治理工程为例,在工程设计、施工和运行的基础上,提炼出了坝基钢管桩复合地基技术和大比降排导槽消能防磨技术两项关键技术,对震后泥石流工程治理具有一定的理论和实际意义。 本文的主要内容为: (1)统计了汶川地震区内五大典型片区的泥石流活动状况及其特征参数,结合各区域的现场调查情况,将汶川地震区狭陡型沟道泥石流定义为:流域邻脊(谷)狭窄、沟床纵坡陡峻、地表土层深厚的发展期山坡泥石流。总结了狭陡型泥石流的典型特征,包括发育环境、形成特征、活动特征及危害特征,分析了其工程治理难点。 (2)将微型钢管桩(长径比L/D=50~150)引入泥石流防治工程条件下使用,并以内置钢筋芯和外扩压力灌浆渗层进行结构改造,组成“实体桩-灌浆柱-桩间土层”复合地基;对其在狭陡型泥石流治理中的适用性和有效性进行了剖析,并着重探讨了其设计计算方法及相关施工技术。复合桩基受力性状按受压杆件考虑,桩体竖向承载力可按弹性阶段折算断面法以群桩受压公式计算,桩土复合地基承载力和竖向沉降则可按等效天然地基理论进行校核;经2012年汛期泥石流多次过流的运行工况验证,表明钢管桩对阻滞坝下冲刷坑扩展、防止坝基土体被淘蚀效果显著;若在类似的施工条件下运用,钢管桩复合地基技术尚有一定的承载力和抗冲刷潜能可供开发利用。 (3)研究了适用于大比降排导槽消能防磨的两项新技术--预制箱体衬砌消能槽段和槽底铺设加糙防磨带,分别提炼了其设计方法;通过泥石流过流观测和理论分析,阐释了其作用机制:箱体衬砌消能槽段对泥石流平均流速的降低幅度为5.7%~37.1%,泥石流在该段的流速变化过程为“加速-减慢-再次加速”;箱体衬砌段以下槽底磨蚀较之以上减慢,表明泥石流经箱体槽消能后磨蚀力减弱;下游加糙带槽段的泥位波动、磨蚀较为均匀,表明加糙带对遏制泥石流的流速和磨蚀强度沿程发展具有一定作用。
Other AbstractIt is often seen that debris flows occurred in narrow-steep gullies in Wenchuan earthquake areas in the past 5 years. The developing environment and characteristics of formation, activity, and harm of these debris flows are quite different from debris flows before the earthquake. Because of its large amount, wide distribution, frequent occurrence and significant harm, it is very necessary to focus on their specificities and to develop targeted prevention and control technologies. In this paper, extensive collection of information and in-depth analysis of these debris flows was taken out, as well as some field investigation. Then definition of debris flow in narrow-steep gullies was given, the typical characteristics of its formation, activity and hazard were summarized, and the difficulties of mitigation works were proposed.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7137
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨东旭. 汶川地震区狭陡型泥石流工程治理关键技术研究——以绵竹市小岗剑泥石流治理工程为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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