IMHE OpenIR  > 数字山地与遥感应用中心
基于GIS的小流域地貌形态与土壤侵蚀强度的关系研究
Alternative TitleThe study on the relationship between the morphology and soil erosion intensity of small watershed based on GIS
Language中文
宋春风
Thesis Advisor陶和平
2013
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline地图学与地理信息系统
Keyword地貌形态 分形信息维数 土壤侵蚀强度 Gis
Abstract地貌形态是土壤侵蚀发育的基础,土壤侵蚀过程又会对地貌形态进行重新塑造,二者是一个复杂的耦合系统。对流域地貌形态特征和土壤侵蚀进行深入的定量化分析,揭示土壤侵蚀与流域地貌之间耦合关系,进而建立流域级土壤侵蚀模型,可以为土壤侵蚀监测及治理措施制定提供一定的科学支撑。本研究基于空间抽样原理布设样区,结合地形数据、遥感数据和已有的相关资料,运用地理信息系统和数理统计方法,以流域地貌形态量化指标提取和土壤侵蚀定量计算为主线展开研究,获取了研究区土壤侵蚀相关数据和抽样小流域一系列地貌形态参数。(1)地貌形态参数:小流域地貌要素参数之间存在着相互作用。流域投影面积与沟道总长、流域体积、分形信息维数显著相关;沟道总长与流域体积、沟壑密度和分形信息维数显著相关;流域面积比与沟道总长、高差、平均坡度和沟壑密度显著相关;平均坡度与流域面积比、最大高差、平均高差和侵蚀积分显著相关,侵蚀积分值与流域沟壑密度显著相关。其中最大高差与平均高差、平均坡度与面积比、沟道总长与投影面积具有明显线性函数关系。分形信息维数在一定程度上包含了流域面积、流域体积、流域高差、流域平均高差、平均坡度等流域地貌因子的部分信息。将流域地貌分形信息维数作为刻画流域地形地貌的因子,能够比较综合的反映流域地貌表面的复杂程度。(2)土壤侵蚀强度:本研究结果显示凉山彝族自治州土壤侵蚀面积为29286.91km2,占土地总面积的48.78%,平均土壤侵蚀模数为1207.67t/(km2?a)平均潜在土壤侵蚀模数为12630.03 t/(km2?a),平均水土保持模数11422.53 t/(km2?a),因此凉山州是土壤侵蚀的极度敏感区。凉山彝族自治州各县(市)中普格县的土壤侵蚀情况最为严重,其次为会理、会东、宁南、金阳、布拖、喜德、越西、甘洛、美姑等县。空间上,凉山彝族自治州土壤侵蚀强度与宏观地貌格局基本一致,表现为地形起伏大的地区土壤侵蚀强烈,地形起伏度小的地区土壤侵蚀微弱。总体上,土壤侵蚀强度随着海拔的升高而减弱,随着坡度的升高表现出先上升而后下降的趋势。土地利用类型上,未利用地的土壤侵蚀模数和土壤侵蚀比例是最高的,其次是旱地和草地。加大坡耕地治理力度仍是凉山彝族自治州水土保持工作的重中之重。(3)耦合关系研究:以雅砻江为界,凉山彝族自治州在土壤侵蚀特征和地貌特征上表现出明显的差异。沟壑密度、分形信息维数、土壤侵蚀模数和潜在土壤侵蚀模数从西北到东南递增的趋势比较明显。信息熵则呈现的是西到东的减小趋势。沟壑密度、信息熵、分形维数与土壤侵蚀强度在空间上总体一致。分形信息维数与土壤侵蚀强度显著相关,沟壑密度和信息熵与土壤侵蚀强度不显著相关。分形信息维数能够解释研究区的土壤侵蚀强度。潜在土壤侵蚀模数与分形信息维数间函数关系为y = 70697x - 76477,可决系数0.8328.土壤侵蚀模数与分形信息维数函数关系为y=0.0213e8.0066x,可决系数0.7231。平均相对误差分别为20%和28%,模型在分形信息维数小于1.4时基本可靠,平均相对误差小于20%。
Other AbstractMorphology is the foundation of the development of soil erosion, soil erosion processes reshape the morphology in turn, and they form a complex coupling system. Doing an in-depth quantitative analysis of soil erosion and morphology characteristics, revealing the coupling relationship between small watersheds ’soil erosion and morphology, and then establishing a soil erosion model in small watershed level can provide a certain amount of scientific support for soil erosion monitoring and corresponding measures. In this paper, sample regions were based on the spatial sampling principle. With the terrain data, remote sensing data and existing relevant data, using geographic information system methods and mathematical statistics methods, we made extracting the morphology parameters and calculating the soil erosion intensity as the main lines to conduct the research.Morphology parameters: Morphology parameters of small watershed influenced each other. Projected area was significantly related with channel length, volume, and the fractal information dimension. Channel length significantly related with the volume, gully density and fractal information dimension. Area ratio significantly correlated with the channel length, elevation, average slope and gully density. Average slope significantly correlated with area ratio, maximum elevation difference, average elevation difference and erosion integral, erosion integral value and gully density significantly correlated with each other.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7142
Collection数字山地与遥感应用中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋春风. 基于GIS的小流域地貌形态与土壤侵蚀强度的关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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