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第七章 流域水灾害特征与区域影响
Alternative TitleChapter 7 Water hazards characteristics and regional effect in Koshi river basin
陈宁生; 胡桂胜; 邓伟; Narendra Khanal
Source Publication气候变化下Koshi 河流域资源、环境与发展
Publication Place成都
Keyword水灾害 区域特征 Koshi 河流域
Other Abstract

Koshi 河流域是恒河的一个重要支流,地跨中国、尼泊尔和印度3 个国家,流域内具有世界上最大的高差,最为完整的气候、土壤和植被带谱。流域发育有罕见的多类型水灾害,这些水灾害主要有冰湖溃决、洪水、泥石流、干旱等。其冰湖溃决灾害集中于Koshi 河流域上级支流;而泥石流灾害点多、面广,呈带状分布,灾害损失巨大;洪水灾害主要集中于流域下游,并造成流域水土流失严重;干旱灾害范围大,年内持续时间长,并且由于人口的增加、生态的退化,有进一步加重的趋向。认识流域水灾害特征、时空规律,加强综合防治以及生态系统功能保育与健康管理对促进和保障流域可持续发展意义重大。

; The Koshi river is an important tributary of the Ganges that passes through China,
Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71,500 km2, the Koshi river has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8,848m of Mt Everest to 60m of the Ganges plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacier-lake outburst, debris flow, landslide, flood, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This chapter describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socioeconomics. Glacier-lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, decline of ecosystem and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The chapter has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.
Document Type专著章节文集论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈宁生,胡桂胜,邓伟,等. 第七章 流域水灾害特征与区域影响. 气候变化下Koshi 河流域资源、环境与发展. 成都:四川科学技术出版社,2014:81-101+172-178.
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