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高山竹类生理生态与海拔梯度上环境因子的耦合变化
Language中文
潘红丽
Thesis Advisor李迈和 ; 刘兴良
2009
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword海拔梯度 全球气候变暖 土壤理化性质 土壤微生物 Sla 地上生物量 生化组成 油竹子 华西箭竹 卧龙自然保护区
Abstract全球气候变化 (如温度升高) 迅速而强劲地影响着高海拔地区的生态环境。高山地区海拔变化导致的环境因子显著不同,因此成为研究植物环境适应性及其对全球气候变化响应的理想区域。海拔梯度上植物的形态、生长及生理生态特性的研究已经有大量报道,且大都集中在具有次生生长特征的乔木种类上。快速而不具次生生长特征的竹子,对海拔梯度的响应与生长速率缓慢的乔木是否一致?关于这方面的内容,至今未有报道。 濒危物种大熊猫 (Ailuropoda melanoleuca David) 仅存在我国青藏高原东缘的狭小地带上。竹子是大熊猫的主要食物,它的生长、分布范围和大熊猫的生存息息相关。为了认清气候变化如何影响竹子的生长和生理生态特性,本论文系统调查研究了卧龙自然保护区内典型主食竹种油竹子 (Fargesia angustissima (Mitford) T.P. Yi) 和华西箭竹 (Fargesia nitida (Mitford) P. C. Keng ex T. P. Yi),从其天然分布下限至上限的种群结构、生长和生理生态特征。主要探讨:(1) 没有次生生长特征的竹类植物的生长与生理生态对海拔的响应,是否有别于具有次生生长的树木?(2) 分布在不同海拔区间的同属两种竹类植物,其生长与生理生态特征对海拔的响应是否相同/似?(3) 决定此两种竹类植物的生长、生理生态特性的主要环境因子有哪些?(4) 当前快速的全球气候变化对这两种竹类植物的生长、生理生态特性会产生什么样的影响?本论文主要研究结果如下: 环境因子的梯度变化: 随海拔升高土壤温度和pH线性降低。土壤有机C、全N、P、K和速效N、P、K,土壤微生物群落数量以及土壤微生物量C量和N量随海拔升高均先降低后升高。土壤中微生物群落数量大小为细菌>真菌>放线菌。 植物生长和形态特征:(1) 除油竹子分株节数随海拔升高近似线性增加、分株枝生物量随海拔升高线性降低,华西箭竹SLA和枝下高线性降低,两种竹子的形态特征 (单叶质量和面积、分株高、基径、节间长) 和地上生物量及各器官生物量均表现为非线性变化。油竹子分株的形态特征和地上生物量在海拔梯度上总体呈先减小后增大的单峰变化趋势,低峰值在1620 m附近。华西箭竹分株的形态特征和生物量在海拔梯度上总体呈现先增大后减小的单峰变化趋势,高峰值在 2800 m 附近。(2) 油竹子分株基径、高、地上生物量均高于华西箭竹,这除了种间生态学特性差异,反映出环境条件对植物生长的影响,作为高海拔物种的华西箭竹,可能由于恶劣的生长环境,如低温和较短的生长季制约了它的生长,因此长得矮小。 植物生理生化特征:(1) 油竹子分株地上部及各器官中各生化组分含量随海拔梯度的变化,无论生长季前和季末,与其形态和生物量的变化一致,均表现为先降低后升高 (低峰值在1620 m附近)。(2) 华西箭竹分株地上部及各器官中的各生化组分含量随海拔梯度的变化,在生长季末,与其形态和生物量变化一致,即随着海拔升高先升高后降低,高峰值在2800 m附近,生长季前,随海拔升高,表现为“低-高-低-高”的变化趋势。(3) 油竹子体内各生化组分的含量高于华西箭竹,这除了种间的生态学特性差异,反映出环境条件对植物体内营养元素的影响,作为高海拔物种的华西箭竹,可能由于恶劣的生长环境,导致体内各成分含量均低于低海拔的油竹子。 植物生理生态与环境因子的耦合分析表明:(1) 高海拔的华西箭竹对温度较为敏感,气候暖化将有利于它的生长,因此其分布上限可能会提高。而在温度不占支配地位的中低海拔,增温反而对油竹子生长起到限制作用,这可能是由于全球变暖会增强植物蒸散和土壤干旱程度。由此可见,温度可能是决定华西箭竹在海拔梯度上的生长和生理生态特性的主要因子。(2) 土壤基质对油竹子的生长比华西箭竹影响更大,这表明,土壤因子可能是决定油竹子在海拔梯度上的生长和生理生态特性的主要因子。本研究结果拓展和丰富了海拔梯度上植物对变化中的环境的适应和响应的规律研究,也对地震后保护区植被的恢复与重建提供了科学的参考价值。
Other AbstractGlobal warming has been predicted to occur most rapidly at high altitude. The strong altitudinal gradients leading to dramatic variations in environmental conditions in mountain regions provide unique and sometimes the best opportunities to study plant responses and adaptation to global climate change. Many studies investigated the growth and physiological responses of trees with secondary growth to altitude. However, the eco-physiological responses of plants without secondary growth to elevation have not been reported. Whether the most fast-growing bamboos respond to elevation similarly with the relatively slow-growing trees? We investigated the morphology, growth, and biochemical contents of F.argustissima and F. nitida across their altitudinal gradients from their lowest distribution boundaries (higher temperature) to their uppermost elevational limits (lowest temperature) in the Wolong Nature Reserve. The present study aimed to answer the questions: (1) whether plants with or without secondary growth respond to global climate change similarly, (2) whether the two bamboo species from the same genus respond to altitude similarly, (3) what factors mainly determine the ecophysiological characteristics of F. angustissima and F. nitida to elevation, respectively, and (4) what is the future fate of these bamboos and the Giant Panda under global climate change in the reserve? Soil temperature (-10 cm deep) and soil pH declined linearly with increasing elevation. Changes in the contents of soil organic matter, total N, P, K, available N, P, K, soil microbial biomass C and N, and soil microbial community with increasing elevation showed a concave curve with a turning point at ~2480 m a.s.l. Except for an increased inter-node number and decreased shoot biomass, changes in other morphological traits (SLA, diameter, height, clear length) and biomass (leaf, stem, and aboveground biomass) of F. angustissima with increasing elevation were not linear, but formed a concave curve with a turning point at ~1620 m a.s.l. and its bio-chemical contents has the similar trends to elevation. Except for a decreased trend of SLA and clear length, changes in other morphological traits and biomass of F. nitida with increasing elevation were not linear, but formed a convex curve peaked at ~2800 m a.s.l. and its bio-chemical contents at the ending growing season has the similar trends to elevation, but showed a "low-high-low-high" trend in April. Differences in responses of growth and ecophysiology of F. angustissim and F. nitida to altitude reflected the differences in their biological adaptation to environmental conditions, and their growth and survival strategy in a changing global climate. The high-altitude species (F. nitida) may benefit from global warming and its uppermost limit will shift upwards with further global warming. The low-altitude species (F. angustissima) may suffer from drought caused by global climate change.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7678
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
潘红丽. 高山竹类生理生态与海拔梯度上环境因子的耦合变化[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2009.
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