IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
长江上游亚高山森林区水文特征与模拟方法研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Hydrological Characteristics and Modelling methods of Subalpine Forest in Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River
Language中文
周杨明
Thesis Advisor程根伟
2002
Degree Grantor中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Place of Conferral成都
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword贡嘎山 亚高山 森林 水文特征 降雨-径流模拟 水文效应
Abstract该文主要采用小流域定位观测实验法、对比试验法和数学模拟高法,研究了长江上游亚高山森林区的水文特征.目的是了解森林生态系统中水分运动的过程与机制,正确认识和评价森林的作用,合理经营利用森林,保护和利用水资源,维持中国社会经济的可持续发展.通过对贡嘎山高山水文观测系统历年的系列观测资料的分析发现:黄崩溜沟暗针叶林区的多年平均降水量为1926.3mm;平均风速仅为0.6m/s且季节变化小;多年平均湿度高达90.7%,并且年内变差系数仅0.03.因此,风速和相对湿度不影响该区蒸散力的主要因素.
Other AbstractUsing the field observation and mathematic modelling mothed, hydrological characteristics of subalpine forest in upper reaches of the Yangtze River are studied in this paper. According to the long-term observational data of the subalpine hydrological system, average annual precipitation for subalpine dark coniferous forest on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga is 1926.3mm, accounting for 79.72% in wet season and only 20.28% in dry season. Average wind velocity is 0.6m/s and its seasonal change is slight. Average annual relative humidity is 90.7% with variation coefficient of only 0.03 in a year. Wind velocity and relative humidity have little effect on potential evapotranspiration in subalpine dark coniferous forest of Mt. Gongga. Penman equation is applied to calculate potential evapotranspiration of subalpine dark coniferous forest on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga. The Penman method gives an annual potential evapotranspiration rate of 431.8mm/yr, which is higher than the annual pan evaporation rate of 346.1mm/yr in the same period. From April to October(growth season), the potential evapotranspiration of dark forest is higher than pan evaporation outside forest. However, between November and May, the potential evapotranspiration of dark forest is equal to pan evaporation outside forest. The canopy interception of Abies fabri in Huangbengliu Watershed is gradually increased with rainfall. The maximum of interception is about 20mm. However, the interception rate is gradually decreased with the augmentation of rainfall. The interception rate is about 40% as the rainfall less than 10mm and low 40% as the rainfall greater than 10mm. The maximum water-holding capacity of moss and litter is 4.84mm under Abies fabri forest, and the maximum active water-holding capacity is 3.93mm. Considering the features of the forested watershed, the author develops a lumped model by using the conceptual hydrological modelling mothed. Using this model, the hydrological process of C watershed and H watershed in Carnation Creek(Canada) and Huangbengliu Creek(China) are modeled. The modelling result of H watershed gives an insight of the change of the streamflow components. After clear-cutting in H watershed, the surface flow increased 0.85%, the interflow increased 13.48%, shallow ground water decreased 14.33%. This result show that forest is help to turn the surface flow and interflow into ground water. As a consequence of deforestation, the function of canopy to rainfall redistribution may lost the infiltration time of the storge water in woodland is decrease, the surface flow will increase, runoff concentrate to stream more quick. After deforestation the flood discharge will increase in H catchment, the average modulus of runoff has increased by 30.3%.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7756
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周杨明. 长江上游亚高山森林区水文特征与模拟方法研究[D]. 成都. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所,2002.
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