IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
区域生态环境脆弱性与可持续发展-以西藏“一江两河”地区为例
Alternative TitleRegional Eco-environment Vulnerability and Sustainable Development -a Case of One River and Two Streams, Tibet
Language中文
李祥妹
Thesis Advisor钟祥浩
2004
Degree Grantor中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Place of Conferral成都
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline自然地理学
Keyword生态环境脆弱性 生态承载力 区域生态脆弱性评价模型 驱动力经济与环境互动机理 人地关系 调控对策与措施 "一江两河"地区
Abstract脆弱性(Vuinerabllity)是指生态系统在受到干扰时容易从一种状态转变为另一种状态,而且一经改变很难恢复到初始状态,即系统经受干扰的能力,当一个地区典型的生态系统受到强烈干扰时,脆弱性就在某些地方出现,整个生态系统也就进入脆弱状态。出现脆弱状态的区域单元一般称为脆弱区,这类区域单元往往表现为对外界干扰敏感,生态稳定性较差,资源环境容易向不利于人类利用的方向发展,因此区域生态环境脆弱性往往限制着区域经济的发展,表现出与区域经济发展运行不良同时出现的特征。系统内部结构的不稳定性和对外界干扰的敏感性是生态环境脆弱地区的最基本的特征,作为外界干扰的一种形式,这类地区的经济开发活动必然对系统本身的演化趋势产生影响,如果经济开发活动超越了区域的生态承载力,经济活动的成果将由区域生态脆弱性的加剧抵消,形成"脆弱一经济运行不良"的循环,因此,区域生态环境的脆弱性决定着区域发展模式的选择必须以经济与环境的互动理论为指导,建立生态环境脆弱性与区域经济发展的良性祸合关系。本文以人地关系为基点,以生态经济学、环境经济学、可持续发展理论指导,以人类经济活动为中心,围绕生态环境脆弱地区经济与环境矛盾运动过程,选取西藏"一江两河"地区16个农业县和两个主要城镇现状数据和时间序列数据,从现状、发展趋势、稳定性等方面对这一地区生态环境脆弱性特征进行了分析,以生态承载力理论为基础,在分析2000年第五次人口普查资料的基础上探讨了这一地区的人口发展模型和未来人口状况,建立了生态环境与经济开发相互影响的脆弱生态区可持续发展模型,探求"一江两河"地区农村和城镇实现经济与环境协调发展的生态经济发展模式、对策与措施,为促进中国西部大开发、促进西藏经济发展、全面建设"一江两河"经济带提供理论依据和实践指导。主要研究内容包括:区域生态环境脆弱性定量分析的理论与方法研究,区域经济与环境互动机理理论与方法研究,"一江两河"地区生态环境脆弱性及其驱动力时空分异规律实证研究;"一江两河"地区人口模型与未来人口状况及相应的人口对策研究;"一江两河"地区人地关系现状与发展趋势研究;"一江两河"地区发展模式与对策研究。主要研究结论:(1)基于因子分析指标体系综合定量评价区域生态环境脆弱性,在此基础上进行生态环境脆弱性分区,对建立"一江两河"地区经济发展模式具有重要的理论与方法意义:(2)基于"一江两河"地区截面数据和时间序列数据的生态环境脆弱性及其驱动力时空分异规律的研究,揭示了"一江两河"地区经济与环境的互动机理:经济与环境的矛盾更尖锐地表现为经济发展与生态环境脆弱性的矛盾;"一江两河"地区生态环境脆弱性是自然与人为共同作用的结果,又以人为作用为主;随着区域经济的快速发展生态环境脆弱性不断加剧,经济与环境处于不协调状态。(3)"一江两河"地区未来人口压力大,人地关系紧张,经济发展过程中面临着传统发展模式的严峻挑战,只有建立生态脆弱性与区域经济发展的良性祸合关系,才能避免以生态环境为代价发展经济的不可持续的发展行为,实现经济与环境的协调发展。(4)以生态承载力理论为基础,将生态承载力剩余、经济开发强度、经济开发速度等3个综合性变量作为描述脆弱生态区的状态变量,建立"一江两河"地区生态环境脆弱性的演化模型,在第五次人口普查的基础上探讨区内人地关系现状与发展趋势,提出了"一江两河"地区经济开发的调控方法;认为"一江两河"地区应以水资源的开发利用为核心构建适宜的生态经济开发模式,以水、土资源高效合理利用为前提,实施人口控制、植被恢复、特色产业发展、剩余劳动力转移等对策与措施,最终实现经济与环境协调发展的目的。
Other AbstractWhen eco-system suffering disturbance, the state of it is changing and is difficultly recovering to initial state when the changing occurred. Vulnerability is the ability of enduring disturbance of system. When the eco-system in a certain area suffering intensely disturbance vulnerability will be occurred in this area and the whole regional eco-system will turn into vulnerable state. The regional unit where having vulnerability is defined as vulnerable region, and some behaviors such as weakly eco-stability, sensible to outside disturbance and developing orientation of resource-environment going against utilization in those regions. So regional eco-environment vulnerability sometimes constraints the development of regional economy and behaves some characteristics simultaneously occurred with ill regional economy operating. The primary characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerable region is unstable interior system structure and sensitively to outside disturbance. The economic exploitation which is a kind of disturbance in those regions consequentially impacts the trend of system evolvement. If the economic exploitation activities exceed the regional ecological carrying capacity, the benefits of economic activities will be counteracted by regional ecological vulnerability, thus the malignant circulation of vulnerability to ill regional economy operating will be come into being. Therefore, regional eco-environment vulnerability determines the choosing of regional development mode based on the theory of economy-environment interaction. Based on the relationship between human and environment, directed by ecological economics, environmental economics and sustainable development theories, focused on human's economic activities, enclosed the incompatible development process between economy and environment in eco-environmental vulnerable regions, this paper analyzes the characteristics of vulnerability from its current state, development trend, stability, and so on, in 16 counties and two main towns of "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet by using the temporal series data and sectional data. Based on the theories of ecological carrying capacity and the analyzing of the fifth population census (2000) , this paper discusses the population development mode and future population situation, establishes the sustainable development mode which has mutual impaction between eco-environment and economy exploitation in vulnerable region, also exploits the mode, countermeasures and step of ecological economy development which has harmoniousness between economy and environment in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin. Thus this paper can provide the theory principles and guidance of practices. The main research contents include: the theory and study methodology of quantitative analysis for regional eco-environment vulnerability; the theory and study methodology of mutually acting mechanism between regional economy and environment; case study of eco-environment vulnerability and the rule of spatial-temporal distributing difference of its driving forces in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; the analysis of current situation of relationship between human and environment and its development trend in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; the mode of sustainable development and countermeasures study in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet. The main conclusions include: 1. Integrated quantitative appraised the regional eco-environment vulnerability based on the indicators system of factors analyzing and processed the division of eco-environment vulnerability, which play a important role in establishing the mode of economy development in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; 2. Based on the temporal series data and sectional data, the study of eco-environment vulnerability and the rule of spatial-temporal distributing difference of its driving forces Indicated the mutually acting mechanism between regional economy and environment in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; the contradiction between economy and environment representing the contradiction between economy development and eco-environment vulnerability; the eco-environment vulnerability in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet being the results of co-action between environment and human, mainly of human action; the future economy development confronting the severe challenges of traditional development mode, so only building the well coupling relationship between eco-environment and regional economy development to avoid the unsustainable development behaviors which had been done at the price of impairing the eco-environment, and to realize the harmonious development between economy and environment. 3.Based on the theory of ecological carrying capacity, taking the 3 integrated variables such as the surplus of ecological carrying capacity and intensity of economy exploitation as the state variables for describing vulnerable ecological zone, building the evolvements mode of eco-environment vulnerability in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; 4.Based on the analyzing of the fifth population census (2000) analyzing the current situation and development trend relationship between human and environment; proposing the regulation and control methods of economy exploitation in "one-river-two-tributaries" basin in Tibet; reckoning the construction of the feasible mode of eco-economy exploitation focused on water resources exploitation; on the premise of the effective utilization of water and land resources, implementing vegetation recovery by human controlling, special industry development, cites and towns development and transfer of labors surplus; realizing the goal of the harmonious development between economy and environment.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7797
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李祥妹. 区域生态环境脆弱性与可持续发展-以西藏“一江两河”地区为例[D]. 成都. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所,2004.
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