IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
基于遥感GIS的岷江上游土地利用/覆被时空动态变化及其水文效应研究
Alternative TitleThe Study on the Spatial-temporal Dynamic Change of Land Use/Cover in the Upper Reaches of Mingjiang River and its Hydrological Effects Based on RS&GIS
Language中文
李爱农
Thesis Advisor周万村
2003
Degree Grantor中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
Place of Conferral成都
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline地理学与地理信息系统
Keyword岷江上游 遥感 土地利用/覆被 动态变化 驱动力模型 水文效应
Abstract土地利用与土地覆被变化研究(LUCC)一直是国际全球变化研究的重要课题。土地利用变化引起土地覆被的改变,而土地利用又受到人类驱动力的影响,通过土地利用与土地覆被变化研究将增强人类活动在全球变化中作用机制的认识,使得人类赖以生存的环境朝着有益的方向发展。本文主要是研究崛江上游30年土地利用/覆被动态变化及其水文效应,以LUCC理论和地学信息图谱理论为基础,以系统论和可持续发展论的观点,在3S技术的支持下运用数学统计方法开展的。主要研究内容涉及到土地利用/覆被现状分析、数量结构变化分析、图形信息变化分析、驱动力分析以及森林、草地等覆被变化的生态水文效应。为了实现论文的研究目标,本文应用遥感、地理信息系统和全球定位系统一体化技术,结合野外考察,实现信息宏观和微观的交融与统一,通过综合定量分析、模型分析和历史对比与考证,对区域地表覆被时空分布规律、现代变化过程和机理及其驱动因子,以及水文效应进行研究与探索。研究得到如下结论: ①研究崛江上游的土地利用/覆被及其动态变化,不仅对保护眠江上游的生态环境具有重要的意义,而且对长江上游的生态平衡也有重大价值。用3S集成的手段展开对崛江上游的土地利用/覆被动态变化研究是我国LUCC研究的有益的重要补充。 ②地学信息图谱,既是研究的目的,又是研究的手段。通过各种因子的选择运用抽象了的地理数学模型,得到的征兆图、预测图等是研究的目的,但同时利用这种直观的图形再现,利用抽象的模型,从中进行数据挖掘,这又是一种研究的有效手段。③采用地理信息系统特有的空间叠置分析技术,可以获得任意大小单元的具有双重属性的数据,这种方法避免了空间信息的损失,同时适于不同尺度的土地利用垂直分异规律研究。山民江上游的土地覆被类型在空间上表现出了对不同高度的选择,表现出了明显的垂直地带性。同时,使土地利用/覆被在与各因子(如地形、土壤、降水等)空间分析得以实现。 ④通过对土地利用水平的研究发现,山民江上游的土地利用率和土地利用程度都不低于全省和全国水平,但其土地利用效益却非常差,其劳动力和资源投入与产出比是不成比例的,表明该区的土地利用与产业结构调整势在必行。⑤通过对土地利用/覆被从数量和空间图形的动态变化的研究得出,山民江上游土地利用/覆被存在从自然状态土地向高利用程度类型变化的正序演替顺序(自然状态—林地、草地—耕地、园地—建设用地)。1986年以后,高利用程度的土地利用类型增长速度较快。但由于受自然生态背景条件的限制,研究区以林地、草地为主要土地覆被类型的大格局在近期不会发生根本变化。⑥本文借助地学信息图谱的理论,展开眠江上游土地利用/覆被动态变化驱动力模型的研究。研究发现,人文因子中的相对经济指数变化、相对农业投入机械力指数变化,自然因子中的坡度、高程,环境因子中的降雨是土地利用变化的主控因子,并且获得预测和优化需要的数学模型。并在此基础上提出加强土地利用规划,保护和恢复崛江上游生态环境的可操作性强的建议。⑦通过崛江上游土地利用/覆被的水文效应研究可知,山民江河水的最枯流量明显的持续减小,最大流量的波动性非常大。森林减少直接影响了森林涵养水源的功能下降。山民江上游的森林资源是“成都平原的绿色长城”,有增水减峰维护生态环境的功能。然而分析指出,山民江上游的森林资源在过去的80年,特别是在最近30年里遭受浩劫,这严重地影响了崛江上游的水文效应,要改善这种状况,只有切实从保护森林资源开始,大力搞好“天保工程”、“退耕还林、还草”工程是“功在当代,利在千秋”的“世纪工程”。
Other AbstractLUCC study is always the core subject of global environmental change. Land use change causes corresponding change of land cover, and it is influenced by the human's driving force. Through the LUCC research, the recognition of function system of human activity in global environmental change will be strengthened, thus the environment essential for human will develop in a good cycle. Based on LUCC and Geometries Information Tupu theory and in the view of systematic and sustainable development, with the support of 3S and application of statistical method, this thesis focuses on LUCC and its hydrological effects in the upper reaches of Mingjiang River for the past 30 years. It is mainly concerned with the analysis of the present situation of land Use/Cover, the statistical structure Change, the diagram information Change, driving force and eco-hydro effects of woodland and grassland Change. In order to achieve the research aim, this thesis explores the spatial-temporal distribution laws of district surface cover, the stimulating change process, mechanism, driving force factors and the hydrological effect through the analysis of comprehensive quantity, models and historic comparison, thus realizing the interrelation and integrity of macro and micro information by the application of RS, GPS and GPS combined with outside survey. There are some conclusions as follows: The study on LUCC in the upper reaches of Mingjing River attaches great importance to the ecological protection in the upper reaches of Mingjiang River as well as to the ecological balance in the upper reaches of Yangtze river. Furthermore, the study on LUCC by the means of 3S integrity is a vital supplement in this area. Geometries Information Tupu is both the aim and the methods for research. The predicting diagram that is obtained by the choice utilization of various factors is the aim to achieve, yet it turns out to be an effective research method if the audio-visual diagram reappearance and abstract model is applied directly from which the data are explored. By the adoption of GIS specific space overlapping analysis technique, the double-characteristic data of various range can be obtained, which avoid the loss of spatial information, and simultaneously apply to vertical division rules and land use of various size as well. The land Use/Cover types in the upper reaches of Mingjiang River present us with the choice of various height and apparent vertical belt nature, thus realizing land Use/Cover and influencing factor, such as geography, soil, rainfall, etc. Through the analysis of land use level study, it can been seen that the percentage and degree of land use in the upper reaches of Mingjiang River don't fall below the provincial and national average. However, the land use efficiency is far behind the normal, and there is no proportion between the labor force and resources input and their output, which indicates a necessary adjustment in the land use and industrial structure in this area. On the basis of the research into land Use/Cover dynamic change in number and spatial diagram, conclusions can be drawn that the normal changing sequence of land use in this area from the natural state to high-application type (normal state - woodland, grassland -farmland, planting land - building land) is normal. After 1986, the high-application land use types have been increasing rapidly. However, due to the restriction of ecological background, woodland and grassland as main land Use/Cover haven't changed basically in this area. With the help of Geometries Information Tupu theory, the land Use/Cover dynamic driving force model research is carried out. It is discovered that the relative economic index of humanity factor, the mechanical index of relative agriculture investment, the slope degree and elevation of the natural factor, and the rainfall of environmental factor area the main controlling factors in land use change, and the data model needed by predicting and optimization are attained. Based on all these, the thesis put forward the operational suggestions of strengthening the land use control, protecting and recovering the eco-environment in this area. According to the study on hydrological effects of land Use/Cover, it are reflected the decreasing highest draught number and the large fluctuation of highest flow. The reducing forest directly leads to the lowering function of water reservation. The forest resource is called the Green Great Wall of Chengdu plateau, with the function of maintaining the ecological environment with regard to water increasing and flood weakening. Yet, the study points out that the forest resources have been seriously damaged in the past 80 years, greatly influencing the hydro-effect in this area. In order to change this, the forest resources must be protected for the environmental project that is of great importance - much effort for now, great benefit for the future.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7802
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
数字山地与遥感应用中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李爱农. 基于遥感GIS的岷江上游土地利用/覆被时空动态变化及其水文效应研究[D]. 成都. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所,2003.
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