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滚石冲击棚洞动力响应及耗能减震机理研究
Alternative TitleThe Study on the Dynamic Response of Rockfall Impact Rock-Shed and the Mechanism of Energy Dissipati
Language中文
王东坡
Thesis Advisor何思明
2014
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Degree Discipline岩土工程
Abstract近年来,伴随地震频发,滚石灾害必将呈长期高发态势,对其有效防治已成为我国社会经济发展的重要保障。在众多滚石灾害防护措施中,棚洞工程是最为有效且环保的方式之一,然而,我国滚石灾害及棚洞工程研究基础还比较薄弱,减灾防灾能力还难以满足国家经济建设和公共安全的需要。因此,科学认识滚石灾害的形成演化规律,发展有效的棚洞工程防护关键技术,是我们面临的一个重大课题。为此,论文针对现阶段滚石灾害减灾基础理论及棚洞工程研究存在的问题,搭建滚石灾害动力过程数值仿真平台,系统开展滚石冲击钢筋混凝土棚洞冲击动力响应理论及数值研究,从而构建滚石冲击棚洞动力过程的定量分析理论与方法,进一步研发滚石棚洞耗能垫层结构、新型耗能减震棚洞等一系列滚石防治关键技术,为滚石防灾减灾领域提供技术支持。论文取得了如下成果: (1)提出一种滚石冲击荷载下棚洞钢筋混凝土板动力响应理论解 基于Olsson冲击动力控制方程,通过引入数值压痕试验,提出一种滚石冲击钢筋混凝土板动力响应问题的理论方法。该方法可用于滚石冲击荷载下棚洞钢筋混凝土板动力响应分析,最终为棚洞工程的设计提供理论支持。 (2)揭示EPS垫层在滚石冲击棚洞过程中的耗能减震机理 通过理论及数值分析,揭示了EPS垫层在滚石冲击棚洞过程中的耗能减震机理,并得到如下结论:EPS垫层结构可延缓滚石与棚洞结构接触时间,大幅度降低滚石冲击力的峰值,具有良好的耗能减震效果;冲击过程中,滚石冲击力峰值随EPS垫层厚度的增加而减小,但当EPS厚度达到一定程度时,伴随EPS垫层厚度的增加,冲击力将保持不变,故在设计EPS垫层厚度时,要同时考虑冲击力大小与材料成本的关系;同时,滚石冲击力峰值随EPS材料密度的减小而降低,但在较大冲击力作用下,密度较小的EPS垫层容易发生冲切破坏而失去其耗能作用,故EPS密度的选取并非越小越好,具体设计要同时兼顾缓冲性能与抗冲切破坏特性。 (3)揭示泡沫铝垫层在滚石冲击棚洞过程中耗能减震机理 泡沫铝作为一种良好的耗能减震材料,在山地灾害领域却未曾应用,论文将泡沫铝材料引入滚石灾害防护领域。并对其进行一系列数值仿真工作,得到结论如下:与单纯泡沫铝结构相比,夹芯板泡沫铝结构可有效防止被保护结构发生较大变形,从而更为有效的保护结构;耗能减震方面,相同泡沫铝垫层厚度下,夹芯板的吸能效果好于单面板,且更加优于单纯泡沫铝结构;同时,加入钢板的泡沫铝垫层结构可有效防止垫层结构产生较大的变形。但当钢板厚度增大到一定程度时,钢板在滚石冲击作用下塑性变形变小,不利于泡沫铝夹芯板能量耗散,且伴随上下层钢板厚度增大对于结构物的保护起到了明显的作用;伴随上下层泡沫铝厚度不断增大,泡沫铝夹芯板结构耗能作用变化不明显,然而,泡沫铝厚度的增加可对保护物结构的位移控制起到显著作用。 (4)棚洞示范工程建设与推广应用 论文研究成果引起了公路、铁路、水电、国土等部门的广泛兴趣,并已成功应用于多项工程:都汶高速公路沙坪大桥桥面滚石灾害防护工程、都汶高速公路桃关隧道出口滚石灾害防护工程、丽江-攀枝花高速公路跨运煤缆车棚洞工程等、雅安震后临时轻钢结构棚洞等,部分工程已经历多次滚石冲击考验,在西部山区交通道路及灾后重建中发挥了重要作用,具有一定的实用性。
Other AbstractIn recent years, with frequent earthquakes, rockfall disasters has showed a high incidence of long-term trend, so it is very crucial to take effective preventions and treatments for the social and economic development in our country. In so many measures against rockfalls, the rock-shed is one of the most effective and environmentally friendly way. However, researches of rockfall disasters and rock-sheds are still weak in our country so that the ability of disaster prevention and mitigation is hard to meet the need of the country's economic development and public security. Therefore, it is a major topic we are facing now on scientifically understanding the law of the formation of rockfall disasters and developing key techniques about rock-sheds. Aiming at dealing with the exist problems about the basic theories of rockfalls and rock-sheds, this paper has established a dynamically numerical simulation platform and systematically researched the responding mechanism of rock-sheds against rockfalls based on this platform so that a theory and a method of quantitative analyzing the dynamic process of hangar tunnel against rockfalls has been created. Furthermore, some rock-sheds with energy dissipation cushion structures and even some new rock-sheds are developed that can give a support to disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper has yielded some results: (1) A theoretical method of dynamical response of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs against rockfalls has been proposed Based on the Olsson’s impact dynamic control equation, a theoretical method of dynamical response of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs against rockfalls has been proposed by introducing the static indentation test. Compared with the existing methods, this method can be used to analyze the dynamic response of RC slabs against rock-falls and it also can provide an effective theoretical support for the design of rock-sheds. (2) The energy consumption mechanism of the EPS cushion has been revealed In the engineering practices, EPS material has been used widely, but now, it still lack of detail research on its mechanisms and quantitative evaluation. In this paper, a comparative study on dynamic responses of soil cushion and EPS structure under impact load of rock-fall was performed. Contact force-indentation relationships between various cushion structures and rock-fall, under loading and unloading conditions, were obtained through static indentation numerical test and were introduced into the impact power control equation to calculate the dynamic responses of different cushion structures. Theoretical resolutions obtained in this study were compared with those of the dynamic finite element method and the two were quite in consistent with each other, which indicate that theoretical method can be used to analyze dynamic responses of sheds subjected to impact load of rock-fall. Results in this study showed that EPS cushion structure showed satisfactory cushioning effect in rock-fall impact loading which was more significant when the material is of low density and large thickness. (3) The energy consumption mechanism of foamed aluminum cushion has been revealed in this paper As a good shock absorption material, Aluminum foam haven’t been used in the field of mountain hazards, this paper has studied the mechanism of the energy consumption of foam aluminum and obtained the following results: Compared with the pure structure of aluminum foam, aluminum foam sandwich plate structure could prevent the protected structure to appear large deformation effectively, which is more effective in protecting the structure. In the point of energy consumption, the sandwich contracture has showed a better advantage than the single plate aluminum contracture and better than pure aluminum foam structure. Meanwhile, it can be control the deformation effectively by using aluminum foam with steel plate. But when the thickness of steel plate increases to a certain extent, the deformation of steel wi
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/7884
Collection山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王东坡. 滚石冲击棚洞动力响应及耗能减震机理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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