IMHE OpenIR  > 成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
北京城市空间扩散的实证分析
Alternative TitleStudy on the Spatial Diffusion of Beijing City
Language中文
李永浮
Thesis Advisor周万村
2004
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name博士
Keyword北京 空间扩散 城市要素 经济发展 制度变迁 大北京规划
Abstract不同领域对城市扩散的研究有着不同视角,或从土地利用/覆被(LUCC)着手:探讨城市用地增长的过程、机制、未来发展态势等;或以城市人口为契入点,研究城市人口的增长、迁移变化等;但工业和商业等其它城市要素的增长变化研究则鲜见;而且规划部门研究的视角与目的与地理科学研究存在显著差异。本文在前人研究和工作的基础上,试图从整体上探讨近50年来北京城市空间的发展变化历程‘特点、动因,以及未来发展。论文主要研究内容和创新点包括以下五方面:第一,城市扩散的整体特征研究。研究内容并非局限于城市用地或人口等某一单要素,而力求包括人口、工业,商业,城市用地,经济实力等多个城市要素,并强调它们之间的内在联系及有机统一。城市要素扩散与城市空间扩展互为因果,前者是后者的内在原因,后者又是前者进一步发展的前提条件。城市的发展变化正是二者矛盾运动的结果,忽略任何一方面都将导致结论有失偏颇,甚至完全错误。第二,在方法和概念上,讨论和界定城市扩散。论文在继承前人工作的基础上,并尽力作了一些改进与填补。例如,完善了北京工业扩散研究;系统提出城市扩散概念和城市有机体与生存空间理论;提出商业扩散分析方法并作初步研究;采用时间序列法建模预测北京总人口、灰色等维递补动态法预测北京流动人口增长趋势,等等。将北京城市扩散与大北京规划结合起来,并探讨其实现途径与障碍,具有一定的前瞻性。第三,从微观,中观和宏观等多尺度上:研究城市扩散。即灵活转换研究内容的空间尺度,不局限于北京全市单一尺度,还从海淀‘朝阳两个近郊区,以及京津冀(大北京)更大范围内探讨北京城市的发展变化。微观分析是研究的需要,宏观分析则是城市未来发展的需要,多层次、多尺度的变换与结合使得北京城市扩散研究更加全面,丰满和立体化。第四,运用多种定量分析技术和方法。采用数理统计、灰色理论、空间统计学和遥感与地理信息技术手段相结合的技术路线,有力地保证了定性分析与定量计算的结合,也极大地增强了研究结果的说服力和可信度。第五,提出城市有机体和生存空间理论模式。将城市类比为生物有机体,假借生物有机体的研究方法于城市研究,认为城市规模增长扩散、空间扩展,功能变迁等动态变化都受类似生物体的生理机制所支配。其中,“生存空间”划分为“实体空间”、“行政空间”和“经济空间”三类:是该理论核心内容。城市有机体与生存空间理论模式是对北京城市扩散研究的理论升华,也是一种理论探索与创新。它来源于北京城市扩散研究,也可指导北京或其它城市的规划建设,有着重要的理念价值和实践意义。研究表明,北京城市各要素业已进入快速扩散阶段,并引发城市生存空间不足问题,寻求新的发展空间乃是当务之急。在京津冀更大范围内发展北京是解决问题的必由之路。大北京规划的实施面临诸多困难,制度性矛盾是最大障碍,通过区域联合协商解决是有利于京津冀各方利益主体的最佳选择。
Other AbstractThe city area and spatial structure of Beijing changed a lot during a span of 50 years since the founding of People's Republic of China, which exceed the whole variation in the past several thousand years. Highly developed civilization together with more and more social and urban problems appeared, such as water resource shortage, ground settlement, traffic jam, environmental pollution and et al., which severely blocked the farther development of Beijing city and puzzled the manager and planner of this city. We attempt to post the essential sticking point of these urban problems through studying the changes of city growth and spatial expending of Beijing. Taking Beijing city as the study area, study its growth and diffusion through deep research on the increase and diffusion of population, industry, commerce, and traffic, as well as the expanding exploitation of city soil use mathematical statistics, spatial statistics, remote sensing (RS) and geography information system (GIS) methods. Finally we put forward a viewpoint that the development of economy and the change of system are the main motivation for Beijing city's increasing and diffusion. Three scale methods (microcosmic, medium and macroscopic scale) were used in studying the diffusion of Beijing city. Medium-scale method was used to study the city's area growth and diffusion, which is the key content of this study; microcosmic scale embodied in the studying of two suburbs of Beijing (Chaoyang and Haidian district), such studies can reveal the regional differences in the diffusion of Beijing city. Taking "Big Beijing" or "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei province" as a whole region for studying the diffusion of Beijing city can provide methods to establish uniform city-region developing strategies and to resolve problems in city developing. The studying results suggested that the diffusion of population, industry, commerce and traffic establishments are all in a rapid developing phase, economic development and system change are the main motivation for spatial diffusing in Beijing city. Increasing of city's basicl factors such as population, commerce and so on cause rapid expanding and structure changing of city space. Infinite increase in quantity of city's basic factors and changes on city's structure function resulted in deficiency of living space in Beijing city, and also aroused a series of population, resources and environmental problems. The ultimate measure to resolve these problems exist in resolving the deficiency of living space and adjusting the city's spatial structure. Developing Beijing within the whole region of "Beijing-Tianjin -Hebei province" is the only choice. Apparently, city organism and living space theory can direct the development of Beijing city. Chapters were arranged in the following order: Introduction. It includes the study purpose, significance and some concepts about city development theories, reviewed the studying history of diffusion of Chinese cities and Beijing city, and shortly evaluated the status quo and future trend. Otherwise the key concepts appeared in this article will be discriminated. Study content, framework and methods. It includes analysis of the emphases and difficulties, arrangement of the framework and structure, and main methods. Mathematic models used in city diffusion simulating are discussed with emphasis. Studies on the diffusion of Beijing city's basic factors. It includes city population, industry and commerce increase and diffusion. Among which the diffusion of the floating population, industry and commerce are main content of this chapter, studies on which are also difficult and weak point in the past city studies. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 are tied up closely because diffusion of city's basic factors are reason for that of city's economy, and diffusion of city's economy is result of diffusion of city's basic factors. Excessive increase of city's basic factors may result in deficiency of city's living space. In a word, diffusion of city's basic factors play an important role in the diffusion of city and make them to be the key point of this study. Examples on the study of the Beijing city's diffusion. Two suburb district, Chaoyang and Haidian, were selected as the demonstrative example because they are the main areas which witnessed the diffusion of Beijing city during the latest several decades. Their diffusion history are exactly epitome of diffusion happened to Beijing city. Now they act as the central function district of Beijing city, and studies on them can lead us to a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of the dynamic changes of Beijing city. Study on the spatial diffusion of Beijing city. It is well known that soil resource is the most important resource for city developing and the carrier of all cities' basic factors. The limitations of soil providence decide the limitation of city's living space development; the change of scale and range of soil exploitation is exactly the representation of the changes of city's living space. The main pathways for obtaining data of soil exploitation are remote sensing maps and related study fruit and statistic data and so on. Study results suggest that rapid expending on soil usage result in seriously deficiency of living space in Beijing, and the future development of Beijing city will also face with seriously soil deficiency. Study on spatial diffusion of the "Big Beijing" or "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei". From the beginning of foundation of PRC, several times administrative layout done in Beijing. After 50 years, Beijng now encountered similar problem of living space shortage once more. All of these proved that Beijing could not independently develop without the broad region around. Theory of city organism and living space. According to the research practice of Beijing city's diffusion, theory of city organism and living space was abstracted. It is hoped that these theories can be helpful in instructing the study of spatial diffusion of Beijing and even cities in China. A brief summarize of shortcomings in this study and put forward an expectation for future studying direction. Conclusions and expectations In conclusion, this research is a comprehensive study of city's diffusion, it involved in population, industry, commerce, traffic and land use etc, instead of studying of single factor; remote sensing, geographical information system, mathematical statistic and spatial statistic methods were used in this study, which is the most different point compared with other studies. City is an organism composed of many factors, which continuously influence or restrict each other during their developing processes. Attempt to divide these factors will result in vain. Yet results from related studies on single factor are also necessary in this study.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.imde.ac.cn/handle/131551/8044
Collection成都山地所知识仓储(2009年以前)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李永浮. 北京城市空间扩散的实证分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2004.
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